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Lee Levine
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President, Consultant
Process Solutions Consulting Inc.
Lee Levine has been a Process Engineer and Metallurgist in the semiconductor industry for 30 years. He now operates his own company Process Solutions Consulting Inc where he consults on process issues and provides SEM/EDS and metallography services.

Lee Levine has submitted responses to the following questions.
Solder Balling Splash After Reflow
In my experience solder balls are always hypoeutectic. This means the solder was overheated not underheated . Additional heating will ...
BGA Die and Pry Testing
I don't think that it's Kirkendall voiding. It looks like poor wetting/ bad adhesion. After 500 cycles it may be ...
Options to Cut Inspection Time
Automated inspection is amazingly fast and accurate. It enables you to get the data you need. ...
Acceptable Conductor Repair
Some people repair, some don't. It all depends on what your QC dept allows and the reliability requirements of the ...
Bromine Free PWBs
Most encapsulent materials previously contained Bromine( halides) as a fire retardant  filler.  New "Green' materials contain no Bromine containing compounds. ...
Gold Edge Contact Flux Contamination Failures
Since the edge connector contacts wipe across the surface they open up new material so they might not cause initial ...
Insufficient Plated Hole Fill with Electrolytic Capacitors
Have you tried high pressure? Also incorporation of voids is normally a sign that you are plating too fast. ...
HASL vs. Immersion Gold
Pros: Less expensive than gold, Gold embrittles solder. Cons: Gold is a LESS corrosive surface than any solder. If wire ...
Immersion Gold PCB's with Oxidation
There are no known oxides of gold. The gold has not oxidized. If there is a contaminant on the boards ...